CNC machining is a standard process that involves computer-controlled machines and includes three main steps: design, machining, and finishing. CNC machines use computer-aided design (CAD) software to create a model of the finished product. CAD software allows designers to create 2D or 3D models and geometries in CNC programming. The product or part’s geometry is imported into CAD software during the design phase.

Bead blasting

Bead blasting is a particular process that requires specialized equipment and skilled operators. This process is particularly effective in metal alloys, as they can withstand considerable surface erosion without chipping or cracking. Softer materials, on the other hand, require smaller abrasives.

Bead blasting is a visual finishing process that smoothes metal surfaces and protects them against corrosion and wear. It can be used in different applications, including automotive parts, and provides a uniform matte finish. It is also helpful in achieving high-shine metal parts.


Counterboring is a standard machining process where a special milling cutter is used to create a cavity the same size and thickness as the fastener head. This machining technique makes it possible for the fastener to remain below the surface level of the workpiece. Typical counterboring tools are special drills with two different cutting diameters. These drills create a hole in the fastener’s body and a cavity for its head.

CNC boring machines are also capable of creating a variety of hole geometries. For example, a CNC machine may produce a small counterbore or a large through-hole. CNC boring is a slower version of drilling a hole and is almost exclusively used on pre-drilled rough holes.


CNC machining includes many different processes and tools, but countersinking is perhaps the most widely used. This process produces a cone-shaped opening at the edge of an existing hole and is often used for debugging a hole or thread and making countersunk-head screws sit flush with the workpiece material.

A countersink cutter is used in various milling applications and overlaps with chamfering endmills with angled tips. The result is a smooth, sloped surface and a smooth thread. These processes are often necessary to create the exact shape and size of a screw hole, and they can take many forms.

Open-loop or closed-loop control

There are two types of CNC machines: closed-loop and open-loop. Closed-loop devices use sensors to determine the position and compare it to the requested distance. If the actual length varies from the requested one, the system may stop the machine or compensate for this by sending additional movement commands. Closed-loop CNC machines are more expensive and require sophisticated software. Typically, closed-loop CNC machines are found in high-end commercial applications.

The open-loop CNC control is simple to use. The NC software produces step and direction signals, then relayed to the machine’s controller. The controller then energizes the motors to move the machine to the desired position.

G-Code language

CNC machining has become much easier with G-Code. CNC machining software generates G-code based on a 3D CAD model and tool selections. This software then optimizes tool paths and spits out the resulting G-code.

Understanding G-code can help you become a better CNC programmer. It’s also helpful to know how to write a line of G-code without using CAD/CAM software. Although manual programming is obsolete in some circumstances, plenty of CNC programming is done by individuals with little or no knowledge of G-code. Editing G-code can be an excellent help for refining and tailoring CNC programs.